Baalbek Literature Review Definition In Research Pdf

CHAPTER FIVE RESEARCH METHODS THE LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER FIVE RESEARCH METHODS THE LITERATURE REVIEW

literature review definition in research pdf

What is a Literature Review? Literature Review. JOB SATISFACTION: A LITERATURE REVIEW MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND PRACTICE VOL. 3 ISSUE 4 (2011) PP: 77-86 78 Management Research and Practice Volume 3, Issue 4 / December 2011 ISSN 2067- 2462 mrp.ase.ro the extent to wich people like ore dislike their job. Thatswhy job satisfaction and job disstatisfaction can appear in any givern work situation., What is a literature review? If you have to write an undergraduate dissertation, you may be required to begin by writing a literature review. A literature review is a search and evaluation of the available literature in your given subject or chosen topic area..

A Literature Review Portland State University

Defining a Literature Michigan State University. 27.01.2017 · To describe and discuss the process used to write a narrative review of the literature for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Publication of narrative overviews of the literature should be standardized to increase their objectivity. In the past decade numerous changes in research methodology, Synthesizing the research literature Writing an assessment of the literature The process is iterative—as you gain understanding, you’ll return to earlier steps to rethink, refine, and rework your literature review..

JOB SATISFACTION: A LITERATURE REVIEW MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND PRACTICE VOL. 3 ISSUE 4 (2011) PP: 77-86 78 Management Research and Practice Volume 3, Issue 4 / December 2011 ISSN 2067- 2462 mrp.ase.ro the extent to wich people like ore dislike their job. Thatswhy job satisfaction and job disstatisfaction can appear in any givern work situation. Definition • According to university of wincosin writing centre, A literature review is a “critical analysis of a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles” 4.

Defining a Literature by Mary M. Kennedy As scholars and their audiences pursue standards of evidence, the Review of Educational Research: integrative reviews, theoretical reviews, methodological reviews, of interwoven and complicated problems of definition, the hiring and allocation of resources, and the research methods used to sort literature review lends itself simultaneously to the analysis of quantitative and qualitative information. As such, every literature review optimally involves using mixed research techniques. Simply put, then, the literature review represents a mixed research study. A literature reviewer might use quantitative research

JOB SATISFACTION: A LITERATURE REVIEW MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND PRACTICE VOL. 3 ISSUE 4 (2011) PP: 77-86 78 Management Research and Practice Volume 3, Issue 4 / December 2011 ISSN 2067- 2462 mrp.ase.ro the extent to wich people like ore dislike their job. Thatswhy job satisfaction and job disstatisfaction can appear in any givern work situation. A Literature Review I. What is a literature review? A literature review is a compilation, classification, and evaluation of what othe r researchers have written on a particular topic. A literature review normally forms part of a research thesis but it can also stand alone as a self-contained review of writings on a …

27.10.2019В В· At the earlier parts of the literature review chapter, you need to specify the type of your literature review and provide reasons for your choice. Your choice of a specific type of literature review should be based upon your research area, research problem and research methods. Also, you can briefly discuss other most popular types of In this part, we present two practical examples to illustrate how to conduct a literature review and its role in research. Example 1. The paper "Survey on Context-Aware Pervasive Learning Environments" [5] is a very good example of a literature review, I think.

14.02.2019В В· A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated. JOB SATISFACTION: A LITERATURE REVIEW MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND PRACTICE VOL. 3 ISSUE 4 (2011) PP: 77-86 78 Management Research and Practice Volume 3, Issue 4 / December 2011 ISSN 2067- 2462 mrp.ase.ro the extent to wich people like ore dislike their job. Thatswhy job satisfaction and job disstatisfaction can appear in any givern work situation.

The format of a review of literature may vary from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment. A review may be a self-contained unit -- an end in itself -- or a preface to and rationale for engaging in primary research. 6 The Literature Review The literature review is important because: † It describes how the proposed research is related to prior research in statistics. † It shows the originality and relevance of your research problem. Speciflcally, your research is difierent from other statisticians. † It justifles your proposed methodology. † It demonstrates your preparedness to complete the

Collaboration: A Literature Review Educators in a variety of educational settings—from K12 to the university classroom— have long used collaborative approaches to teaching and assessing students. Integrative Review Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated. The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses.

01.11.2019 · Sources for the literature and examples. Your literature review should integrate a wide range of sources such as: Books.Textbooks remain as the most important source to find models and theories related to the research area. Definition What is a literature review? • A critical, analytical account of the existing research on a particular topic Why do we write literature reviews? • Show knowledge of the topic • Keep current • Stepping stone to research/further analysis • Gain credibility Learning Development Service

Literature review in research 1. MR. JAYESH PATIDARwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com 2. INTRODUCTION Review of literature is one of the most importantsteps in the research process. It is an account of what is already known about aparticular phenomenon. The main purpose of literature review is to conveyto the readers about the work already done & theknowledge & ideas that have been A literature review with depth and breadth demonstrates comprehensive knowledge of the literature, and confirms that you’re up-to-date with research in your field. It also provides a framework and focus for your proposed research. Your literature review puts your research into context by relating it to previous research.

Initial Literature Review Useful guide for future research explorations Identify potential gaps, areas unexplored Domain research does not build on group or Man. Science and vice-versa Research does not look at format, presentation of information and impact on group process A literature review with depth and breadth demonstrates comprehensive knowledge of the literature, and confirms that you’re up-to-date with research in your field. It also provides a framework and focus for your proposed research. Your literature review puts your research into context by relating it to previous research.

Likewise, a literature review can also have an "argument," but it is not as important as covering a number of sources. In short, an academic research paper and a literature review contain some of the same elements. In fact, many academic research papers will contain a literature review section. Family-provider relationship quality: Review of conceptual and empirical literature of family-provider relationships, OPRE Report #2012-46, Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Initial Literature Review Useful guide for future research explorations Identify potential gaps, areas unexplored Domain research does not build on group or Man. Science and vice-versa Research does not look at format, presentation of information and impact on group process 01.11.2019В В· Sources for the literature and examples. Your literature review should integrate a wide range of sources such as: Books.Textbooks remain as the most important source to find models and theories related to the research area.

27.01.2017В В· To describe and discuss the process used to write a narrative review of the literature for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Publication of narrative overviews of the literature should be standardized to increase their objectivity. In the past decade numerous changes in research methodology A literature review is a comprehensive summary of previous research on a topic. The literature review surveys scholarly articles, books, and other sources relevant to a particular area of research. The review should enumerate, describe, summarize, objectively evaluate and clarify this previous research.

27.01.2017В В· To describe and discuss the process used to write a narrative review of the literature for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Publication of narrative overviews of the literature should be standardized to increase their objectivity. In the past decade numerous changes in research methodology Literature review exercises to analyze the area of the research, which has been resolved in the study. It is the outline of the research. It also shows the gap between the researcher's curiosity

01.11.2019 · Sources for the literature and examples. Your literature review should integrate a wide range of sources such as: Books.Textbooks remain as the most important source to find models and theories related to the research area. 6 The Literature Review The literature review is important because: † It describes how the proposed research is related to prior research in statistics. † It shows the originality and relevance of your research problem. Speciflcally, your research is difierent from other statisticians. † It justifles your proposed methodology. † It demonstrates your preparedness to complete the

What Is a Literature Review? ThoughtCo

literature review definition in research pdf

Literature review Wikipedia. Systematic review definition: A review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review. Statistical methods (meta-analysis) may or may not be used, Definition What is a literature review? • A critical, analytical account of the existing research on a particular topic Why do we write literature reviews? • Show knowledge of the topic • Keep current • Stepping stone to research/further analysis • Gain credibility Learning Development Service.

Literature review in research methodology. Defining a Literature by Mary M. Kennedy As scholars and their audiences pursue standards of evidence, the Review of Educational Research: integrative reviews, theoretical reviews, methodological reviews, of interwoven and complicated problems of definition, the hiring and allocation of resources, and the research methods used to sort, 01.11.2019В В· Sources for the literature and examples. Your literature review should integrate a wide range of sources such as: Books.Textbooks remain as the most important source to find models and theories related to the research area..

Research Guides How to Conduct a Literature Review Types

literature review definition in research pdf

Literature review in research SlideShare. Integrative Review Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated. The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses. literature review lends itself simultaneously to the analysis of quantitative and qualitative information. As such, every literature review optimally involves using mixed research techniques. Simply put, then, the literature review represents a mixed research study. A literature reviewer might use quantitative research.

literature review definition in research pdf


In literature review, are researcher looking at issues of theory, methodology, policy, quantitive research, or what? Before researcher start reading it may be useful to compile a list of the main areas and questions involved, and then read with the purpose of finding out about or answering these. Unless something comes up which is particularly the literature review as “the use of ideas in the literature to justify the particular approach to the topic, the selection of methods, and demonstration that this research contributes something new” (p. 1). He also noted that for the literature review, “quality means appropriate breadth and depth,

Definition of genre A literature review is a “critical analysis of a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles” (University of Wisconsin Writing Center). 27.10.2019 · At the earlier parts of the literature review chapter, you need to specify the type of your literature review and provide reasons for your choice. Your choice of a specific type of literature review should be based upon your research area, research problem and research methods. Also, you can briefly discuss other most popular types of

100 2.1 The literature review The publication, The A-Z of Social Research (Robinson & Reed, 1998: 58), defines a literature review as “a systematic search of published work to find out what is already known about the intended research topic.” A literature review … Likewise, a literature review can also have an "argument," but it is not as important as covering a number of sources. In short, an academic research paper and a literature review contain some of the same elements. In fact, many academic research papers will contain a literature review section.

Definition of genre A literature review is a “critical analysis of a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles” (University of Wisconsin Writing Center). literature review lends itself simultaneously to the analysis of quantitative and qualitative information. As such, every literature review optimally involves using mixed research techniques. Simply put, then, the literature review represents a mixed research study. A literature reviewer might use quantitative research

A literature review is a comprehensive summary of previous research on a topic. The literature review surveys scholarly articles, books, and other sources relevant to a particular area of research. The review should enumerate, describe, summarize, objectively evaluate and clarify this previous research. What is a NOT a Literature Review? A literature review is not simply a chronological catalog of all your sources, but an evaluation. It pulls the previous research together, and explains how it connects to the research proposed by the current paper.

Most often a literature review is a section of a scholarly article or book (usually toward the beginning) which summarizes and evaluates previous scholarship. Sometimes the entire scholarly work is nothing but a literature review, e.g. Annual Reviews. A more detailed explanation is available via the links below. A Literature Review I. What is a literature review? A literature review is a compilation, classification, and evaluation of what othe r researchers have written on a particular topic. A literature review normally forms part of a research thesis but it can also stand alone as a self-contained review of writings on a …

27.10.2019 · At the earlier parts of the literature review chapter, you need to specify the type of your literature review and provide reasons for your choice. Your choice of a specific type of literature review should be based upon your research area, research problem and research methods. Also, you can briefly discuss other most popular types of Purpose of literature review • Motivate your research question(s) • Provide readers with a coherent, focused summary of current state of knowledge • Identify gaps/limitations in current state of knowledge Content of literature review • A literature review addresses the …

literature review definition in research pdf

Likewise, a literature review can also have an "argument," but it is not as important as covering a number of sources. In short, an academic research paper and a literature review contain some of the same elements. In fact, many academic research papers will contain a literature review section. In this part, we present two practical examples to illustrate how to conduct a literature review and its role in research. Example 1. The paper "Survey on Context-Aware Pervasive Learning Environments" [5] is a very good example of a literature review, I think.

5 EMBROIDERING IDENTITIES oi.uchicago.edu To my mother, who continually inspires me with her dedication, perseverance, and love To my father, for his unconditional love, support, and patience تعريف الطفل اصطلاحا pdf unhcr Economy Jul 23, 2013 · أهداء وتصوير - جوده محمد تلاوة الطفل محمود عبدالفتاح الطاروطى البالغ من العمر 9 سنوات وهو نجل القارئ الكبير

What is the importance of literature review on research

literature review definition in research pdf

What is a Literature Review? Research Guides at. 01.11.2019В В· Sources for the literature and examples. Your literature review should integrate a wide range of sources such as: Books.Textbooks remain as the most important source to find models and theories related to the research area., In this part, we present two practical examples to illustrate how to conduct a literature review and its role in research. Example 1. The paper "Survey on Context-Aware Pervasive Learning Environments" [5] is a very good example of a literature review, I think..

WHAT IS A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND HOW DO I

Writing narrative literature reviews for peer-reviewed. to conduct research, literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping stone. For professionals, they are useful reports that keep them up to date with what is current in the field. For scholars, the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the writer in his or her field. Literature reviews also, If you do not know anything about literature review writing, then you should download this PDF. It contains a brief note on literature review including definition, elements, strategies, and its types. Once you read it, you will not need a second document or guidance for writing a custom literature review. Nursing Literature Review Sample.

Synthesizing the research literature Writing an assessment of the literature The process is iterative—as you gain understanding, you’ll return to earlier steps to rethink, refine, and rework your literature review. Purpose of literature review • Motivate your research question(s) • Provide readers with a coherent, focused summary of current state of knowledge • Identify gaps/limitations in current state of knowledge Content of literature review • A literature review addresses the …

Definition • According to university of wincosin writing centre, A literature review is a “critical analysis of a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles” 4. Literature review exercises to analyze the area of the research, which has been resolved in the study. It is the outline of the research. It also shows the gap between the researcher's curiosity

Purpose of literature review • Motivate your research question(s) • Provide readers with a coherent, focused summary of current state of knowledge • Identify gaps/limitations in current state of knowledge Content of literature review • A literature review addresses the … Defining a Literature by Mary M. Kennedy As scholars and their audiences pursue standards of evidence, the Review of Educational Research: integrative reviews, theoretical reviews, methodological reviews, of interwoven and complicated problems of definition, the hiring and allocation of resources, and the research methods used to sort

In this part, we present two practical examples to illustrate how to conduct a literature review and its role in research. Example 1. The paper "Survey on Context-Aware Pervasive Learning Environments" [5] is a very good example of a literature review, I think. Purpose of literature review • Motivate your research question(s) • Provide readers with a coherent, focused summary of current state of knowledge • Identify gaps/limitations in current state of knowledge Content of literature review • A literature review addresses the …

Initial Literature Review Useful guide for future research explorations Identify potential gaps, areas unexplored Domain research does not build on group or Man. Science and vice-versa Research does not look at format, presentation of information and impact on group process In this part, we present two practical examples to illustrate how to conduct a literature review and its role in research. Example 1. The paper "Survey on Context-Aware Pervasive Learning Environments" [5] is a very good example of a literature review, I think.

A literature review is a comprehensive summary of previous research on a topic. The literature review surveys scholarly articles, books, and other sources relevant to a particular area of research. The review should enumerate, describe, summarize, objectively evaluate and clarify this previous research. Family-provider relationship quality: Review of conceptual and empirical literature of family-provider relationships, OPRE Report #2012-46, Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

A literature review is a comprehensive summary of previous research on a topic. The literature review surveys scholarly articles, books, and other sources relevant to a particular area of research. The review should enumerate, describe, summarize, objectively evaluate and clarify this previous research. to conduct research, literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping stone. For professionals, they are useful reports that keep them up to date with what is current in the field. For scholars, the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the writer in his or her field. Literature reviews also

01.11.2019В В· Sources for the literature and examples. Your literature review should integrate a wide range of sources such as: Books.Textbooks remain as the most important source to find models and theories related to the research area. The format of a review of literature may vary from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment. A review may be a self-contained unit -- an end in itself -- or a preface to and rationale for engaging in primary research.

What is a NOT a Literature Review? A literature review is not simply a chronological catalog of all your sources, but an evaluation. It pulls the previous research together, and explains how it connects to the research proposed by the current paper. Literature Review: An Overview Having happily found a suitable topic, the beginning researcher is usually “raring to go.” Too often the review of related literature is seen as a necessary evil to be completed as fast as possible so that that one can get on with the “real research.” This perspective is due to a

Synthesizing the research literature Writing an assessment of the literature The process is iterative—as you gain understanding, you’ll return to earlier steps to rethink, refine, and rework your literature review. Literature reviews are a basis for research in nearly every academic field. A narrow-scope literature review may be included as part of a peer-reviewed journal article presenting new research, serving to situate the current study within the body of the relevant literature and to provide context for the reader.

literature review lends itself simultaneously to the analysis of quantitative and qualitative information. As such, every literature review optimally involves using mixed research techniques. Simply put, then, the literature review represents a mixed research study. A literature reviewer might use quantitative research What is a NOT a Literature Review? A literature review is not simply a chronological catalog of all your sources, but an evaluation. It pulls the previous research together, and explains how it connects to the research proposed by the current paper.

In this part, we present two practical examples to illustrate how to conduct a literature review and its role in research. Example 1. The paper "Survey on Context-Aware Pervasive Learning Environments" [5] is a very good example of a literature review, I think. In this part, we present two practical examples to illustrate how to conduct a literature review and its role in research. Example 1. The paper "Survey on Context-Aware Pervasive Learning Environments" [5] is a very good example of a literature review, I think.

100 2.1 The literature review The publication, The A-Z of Social Research (Robinson & Reed, 1998: 58), defines a literature review as “a systematic search of published work to find out what is already known about the intended research topic.” A literature review … Family-provider relationship quality: Review of conceptual and empirical literature of family-provider relationships, OPRE Report #2012-46, Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

6 The Literature Review The literature review is important because: † It describes how the proposed research is related to prior research in statistics. † It shows the originality and relevance of your research problem. Speciflcally, your research is difierent from other statisticians. † It justifles your proposed methodology. † It demonstrates your preparedness to complete the to conduct research, literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping stone. For professionals, they are useful reports that keep them up to date with what is current in the field. For scholars, the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the writer in his or her field. Literature reviews also

Integrative Review Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated. The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses. to conduct research, literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping stone. For professionals, they are useful reports that keep them up to date with what is current in the field. For scholars, the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the writer in his or her field. Literature reviews also

REVIEW OF CONCEPTUAL AND EMPIRICAL LITERATURE OF

literature review definition in research pdf

Literature review Wikipedia. 01.11.2019В В· Sources for the literature and examples. Your literature review should integrate a wide range of sources such as: Books.Textbooks remain as the most important source to find models and theories related to the research area., In literature review, are researcher looking at issues of theory, methodology, policy, quantitive research, or what? Before researcher start reading it may be useful to compile a list of the main areas and questions involved, and then read with the purpose of finding out about or answering these. Unless something comes up which is particularly.

Literature review in research SlideShare. Definition of genre A literature review is a “critical analysis of a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles” (University of Wisconsin Writing Center)., Definition What is a literature review? • A critical, analytical account of the existing research on a particular topic Why do we write literature reviews? • Show knowledge of the topic • Keep current • Stepping stone to research/further analysis • Gain credibility Learning Development Service.

What is a literature review? Literature Review

literature review definition in research pdf

Purpose of literature review SSCC - Home. Originality: Most papers and books focus on literature review as full articles (systematic reviews, meta analyses and critical analyses) or dissertation, chapters, this paper is focused on literature review for an empirical article. Research method: It is a theoretical essay. Systematic review definition: A review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review. Statistical methods (meta-analysis) may or may not be used.

literature review definition in research pdf


JOB SATISFACTION: A LITERATURE REVIEW MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND PRACTICE VOL. 3 ISSUE 4 (2011) PP: 77-86 78 Management Research and Practice Volume 3, Issue 4 / December 2011 ISSN 2067- 2462 mrp.ase.ro the extent to wich people like ore dislike their job. Thatswhy job satisfaction and job disstatisfaction can appear in any givern work situation. Synthesizing the research literature Writing an assessment of the literature The process is iterative—as you gain understanding, you’ll return to earlier steps to rethink, refine, and rework your literature review.

Integrative Review Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated. The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses. Collaboration: A Literature Review Educators in a variety of educational settings—from K12 to the university classroom— have long used collaborative approaches to teaching and assessing students.

Synthesizing the research literature Writing an assessment of the literature The process is iterative—as you gain understanding, you’ll return to earlier steps to rethink, refine, and rework your literature review. Most often a literature review is a section of a scholarly article or book (usually toward the beginning) which summarizes and evaluates previous scholarship. Sometimes the entire scholarly work is nothing but a literature review, e.g. Annual Reviews. A more detailed explanation is available via the links below.

27.01.2017В В· To describe and discuss the process used to write a narrative review of the literature for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Publication of narrative overviews of the literature should be standardized to increase their objectivity. In the past decade numerous changes in research methodology to conduct research, literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping stone. For professionals, they are useful reports that keep them up to date with what is current in the field. For scholars, the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the writer in his or her field. Literature reviews also

A Literature Review I. What is a literature review? A literature review is a compilation, classification, and evaluation of what othe r researchers have written on a particular topic. A literature review normally forms part of a research thesis but it can also stand alone as a self-contained review of writings on a … Systematic review definition: A review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review. Statistical methods (meta-analysis) may or may not be used

Initial Literature Review Useful guide for future research explorations Identify potential gaps, areas unexplored Domain research does not build on group or Man. Science and vice-versa Research does not look at format, presentation of information and impact on group process Purpose of literature review • Motivate your research question(s) • Provide readers with a coherent, focused summary of current state of knowledge • Identify gaps/limitations in current state of knowledge Content of literature review • A literature review addresses the …

Literature review exercises to analyze the area of the research, which has been resolved in the study. It is the outline of the research. It also shows the gap between the researcher's curiosity the literature review as “the use of ideas in the literature to justify the particular approach to the topic, the selection of methods, and demonstration that this research contributes something new” (p. 1). He also noted that for the literature review, “quality means appropriate breadth and depth,

literature review definition in research pdf

Literature review exercises to analyze the area of the research, which has been resolved in the study. It is the outline of the research. It also shows the gap between the researcher's curiosity The format of a review of literature may vary from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment. A review may be a self-contained unit -- an end in itself -- or a preface to and rationale for engaging in primary research.

View all posts in Baalbek category